Q: Please write me a sonnet on the subject of the Forth Bridge. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

I request anyone reading this to actually write a sonnet on the Forth Bridge.

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The new problem has the advantage of drawing a fairly sharp line between the physical and the intellectual capacities of a man. No engineer or chemist claims to be able to produce a material which is indistinguishable from the human skin. It is possible that at some time this might be done, but even supposing this invention available we should feel there was little point in trying to make a "thinking machine" more human by dressing it up in such artificial flesh. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Framed like Turing does here, this is a pretty reasonable statement.

But there is a growing trend in AI research on embodied cognition, which posits that one’s body actually has a big part in cognition.

This, of course, breaches Frank Herbert’s famous tenet from the Orange Catholic Bible:

“Thou shalt not make a machine in the likeness of a man’s mind.”

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"Is this new question a worthy one to investigate?" Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Is that question even worthy of asking? Is this annotation even necessary? Is this what they call infinite regress?

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These questions replace our original, "Can machines think?" Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

So the question becomes, ‘Can machines fool us into thinking they are women, more so than women can do this themselves?’ as a substitute.

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As the man can make similar remarks. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

I expected a sexist remark here. It was the 50s after all.

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In order that tones of voice may not help the interrogator the answers should be written, or better still, typewritten. The ideal arrangement is to have a teleprinter communicating between the two rooms. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Sorta like… electronic chatting.

A teleprinter is an electronic typewriter from back in the day.

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"My hair is shingled, and the longest strands are about nine inches long." Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Shingled, or finger-waved, hair was a popular hairdo for women in the 20s, 30s and 90s. Remember that there weren’t a lot of long-haired guys walking around in 1950!

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Now suppose X is actually A, then A must answer. It is A's object in the game to try and cause C to make the wrong identification. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Remember A is the man, and is supposed to convince the interrogator that he is a woman.

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It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart front the other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at the end of the game he says either "X is A and Y is B" or "X is B and Y is A." Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

A more simple version of the Turing Test, or perhaps just less sexist, is where the interrogator tries to determine which of the others is a machine and which is a human, while both try to convince the interrogator that they are human. This is how the Turing Test is usually explained nowadays.

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If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, "Can machines think?" is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Computing Machinery and Intelligence by Alan Turing

Is this really so absurd? In his 1967 paper On Thinking Machines and Feeling Machines, Roland Puccetti proposes to define ‘thinking’ in such a way that mechanical computation is also a form of thinking.

A lot of discussions on the philosphy of artificial intelligence boil down to the question ‘what does it really mean to think?’ Since language is a human construct anyway, it makes sense to more clearly demarcate how the word ‘thinking’ is being used.

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