II. Training Status Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

As you’ve already seen, consideration of training status should be taken at just about every turn in program design.

When it comes to volume, it is perfectly reasonable for a beginner to utilize single sets to failure rather than multiple sets. You will make sizable gains while potentially avoiding stimulus fatigue (overtraining) and maybe even cut some time off of your workout.

However, it’s important to keep in mind the principle of progressive overload. Simply put, your muscles will eventually adapt to the stimulus of only one set to failure. Once this happens, you will stop receiving any benefit from this, aside from pure maintenance.


Athletes


For athletes, training volume should be manipulated in a very specific manner based on their seasonal status. Notice how training volume drops of tremendously as the athlete’s sport season begins:

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

I. Multiple Versus Single Sets Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

There is plenty of research that suggests single set training (to failure), i.e. performing only one set of each exercise in your work, will produce gains in size and strength. There is little doubt about this.

As far as how these effects compare to multiple set training, i.e. 2+ sets per exercise, it appears that multiple sets may elicit larger gains, but the difference between the two was always found to be negligible. That was, until James Krieger’s 2009 meta-analysis showed that multiple sets produced 46% greater gains in strength and size compared to single sets.

Furthermore, performing 3 sets without going to failure was also shown to be more effective than performing 1 set to failure.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Twelve poems gone and I don’t keep carbons To The Whore Who Took My Poems by Charles Bukowski

Bukowski would submit the original copies of his poetry to publishers, without making any carbons. When he first began, he would often get them back at some point, along with a brief rejection notice from the publisher.

However, in 1968 he began making, at least a few, carbon copies of his work, at the urging of his new publisher, John Martin.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Show other contributors +

And you have
my
paintings too, my best ones;
To The Whore Who Took My Poems by Charles Bukowski

Though not particularly talented, Bukowski was a prolific painter, creating thousands of pieces over his lifetime.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Show other contributors +

I awakened to dryness and the ferns were dead,
the potted plants yellow as corn;
my woman was gone
and the empty bottles like bled corpses
The Tragedy of Leaves by Charles Bukowski

There is a very obvious image of lifelessness that Bukowski points out here. It sets the scene of this poem, which is tragic in a very over dramatic way, customary of Buk’s poems.

We’re all going to die, all of us, what a circus! That alone should make us love each other but it doesn’t. We are terrorized and flattened by trivialities, we are eaten up by nothing.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Show other contributors +

Was a good comedian, ancient style, a jester The Tragedy of Leaves by Charles Bukowski

The jester archetype is one of the fundamental, archaic “personality types” that derive from the collective unconscious, i.e. the knowledge and understanding passed down from ancient generations. According to Carl Jung, these archetypes are the psychic counterparts of instinct; his idea of the jester was better known as “the trickster”. Whatever you call him, the jester is defined by his incongruity and playful outlook on life. He is able to ingratiate himself to others without affecting the status quo and without having to tap into the often volatile power of cultural taboos.

In art, literature and music, apparent absurdity or incongruity is often used to conceal deeper levels of meaning that are accessible only to those who care to look beyond the surface. Other times, absurdity is simply used to lighten the mood.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Show other contributors +

With jokes upon absurd pain; The Tragedy of Leaves by Charles Bukowski

Shakespeare gave us 5 basic types of comedy, and may have been best recognized for his “theater of the absurd”, though it may be more aptly called the “tragicomedy” in his case. Some of his best examples remain The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest.

However, this genre truly found its way with in the middle of the 20th century, during Bukowski’s time, with playwrights like Samuel Beckett and Jean Genet. The guiding principle of this movement is to look at the world without any assumption of purpose.

Characteristics:

  • Uncomfortable, uneasy, unsure of whether there is any order, sense, or meaning in existence.
  • “Theatrical” rather than realistic.
  • Serious but often satirical.

Basic themes include:

  • Human loneliness in a world without God
  • The inability to communicate
  • Dehumanization and impotence of individuals in a bourgeois society
  • The meaninglessness of life

This thing of darkness I
Acknowledge mine.

For anyone familiar with Bukowski’s work, he often evokes the spirit of absurd comedy, whether intentional or not, and his poetry and novels are rife with themes mentioned above.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

Show other contributors +

A. RM Continuum Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

The RM continuum refers to the range of reps and their relationship with certain training goals, like:

  • Strength
  • Hypertrophy
  • Endurance
  • Power

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

A. Estimating 1RM
b. Goal Repetitions
Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

Of course, before you can use estimate the reps based on % 1RM-load, or vice versa, you obviously need to find out what your max is.

The most accurate way to do this is simply to test it directly. For the most part, this should have been done during the assessment phase. Read more about the logistics of those sorts of tests here.

Of course, it simply isn’t practical to perform serious 1 RM tests on every lift in your program. In this case, you could test it indirectly by doing a multiple-RM and using a slightly modified load/rep-relationship chart.

Finally, instead of getting caught up with 1 RM and funky charts, you could just do a goal-repetition max, i.e. if your training calls for 6 reps, test your 6 RM and use that weight as your training load.

Enlarge

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.

II. 1-Repetition Maximum Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

Considering the relationship between load and repetitions, load is often used in terms of % of 1-repetition maximum. In other words, the ratio between the amount of weight being used, and the maximum amount of weight you could otherwise lift for 1 repetition.

The relationship between the % of 1-RM and potential repetition range is so consistent across populations that there is actually a fairly accurate chart to help you figure out your reps or weight:

NOTE: this works great as a guideline, rather than any concrete assessment. There is still a bit of variance depending on the individual’s training experience, equipment used, current mood, etc.

This video is processing – it'll appear automatically when it's done.