Radicalism II. History of Repression in America by Huey P. Newton

Newton is using the term radicalism in it’s traditional meaning. This should NOT be confused with it’s meaning in contemporary U.S. politics, which is often pejorative.

Simply put, political Radicalism is characterized by the goal of fundamental change in society through institutional reform. It’s often associated with Liberal Democracy, but there have been examples of far-right radicalism throughout the last century as well.

Also, it implies the use of revolutionary tactics and strategies.

Let me say that the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love…We must strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into actual deeds, into acts that serve as examples, as a moving force.

-Che Guevara, in a letter to Carlos Quijano

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Did not begin with the war against the Black Panther Party. II. History of Repression in America by Huey P. Newton

This concept of a “war against the [BPP]” will surely be expanded upon later, but to get an idea of exactly what Newton is referring to, check out this Guardian article which ran back in February of 1970:

Black Panthers: Behind the Myth

That article includes some insightful statistics on BPP repression (towards the end), but probably the best example of the war carried out against them was the assassination of Party leader Fred Hampton by Chicago Police, working in concert with the FBI.

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The use by law enforcement agencies of disinformation, under-cover agents, provocateurs, harassment, and informants II. History of Repression in America by Huey P. Newton

Repression evokes an image of a central political authority using the formal apparatus of the state to put down rebellions…Repression is (in a sense) what states do. [Emphasis added]

-Myra Marx Ferree, as quoted in Media Bias, Perspective, and State Repression (pg. 74)

While there have been a number of brutal cases (Holocaust, Darfur, etc.), State repression is often a subtle process. It’s helpful to think about this in terms of the State’s institutional function; namely, to preserve the status quo. As described by Christian Davenport (linked above; pg. 75), the State has three primary reasons for existance:

  1. Counter and/or eliminate domestic challenges
  2. Create specific political-economic arrangements
  3. Sustain domestic order as well as political-economic arrangements once they have been established.

This model holds much wider-reaching implications than just State violence, but most of the research seems to point to it being the best model for describing and predicting State repression.

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D. Recharge Phase Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

Just to review:

  1. A nerve impulse reaches the muscle cell membrane and causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium
  2. Calcium bonds with troponin, which then pulls back the tropomyosin protein from the myosin bonding sites located on the actin filament.
  3. Myosin cross bridges are formed and the globular head completes a power stroke

Now that the power stroke has occurred, nothing more can happen until the myosin head is detached from actin. This requires energy in the form of 1 ATP molecule.

Once the ATP bonds with the myosin head, it shifts back to it’s initial position. So long as calcium is present to bond with troponin, and ATP is present to detach the myosin head, cross bridge formation will continue and this process will be repeated.

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C. Contraction Phase Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

Once cross bridge formation occurs, the myosin head will immediately perform a power stroke. This causes the filaments to further overlap, and also results in the loss of the ADP+P molecules which were previously held by the myosin head.

http://youtu.be/0kFmbrRJq4w?t=1m40s

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Http://images.rapgenius.com/b73c159040c5120404a4d9d8488eeb14.867x501x1.jpg Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

Starting from the middle and working towards the ends:

  • M-line: This is a combination of proteins which run through the center of the sarcomere. These proteins lend structural support to the sarcomere.
  • H-Zone: The H-Zone is the region of the sarcomere which contains myosin only. As actin is pulled towards the center of the sarcomere during contraction — overlapping more and more with myosin — this zone gets progressively smaller.
  • A-Band: The area of the sarcomere in which myosin and actin overlap is called the A-Band. The size of this region remains the same through-out contraction.
  • I-Band: This region is made up of actin only. It stretches across two sarcomeres, occupying the space between each one’s myosin filaments. This area also shrinks during contraction.
  • Z-disc: The length of a sarcomere is defined by the distance between Z-discs. Again, these are simple structural proteins which help support the sarcomere’s shape and transfer elastic force across the length of the sarcomere.

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These filaments overlap each other to a greater or lesser extent. Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

Here is a useful image which shows a sarcomere at rest, followed by that same sarcomere in a contracted state.

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B. Actin Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

Actin is the “thin” filament in skeletal muscle. It also provides the myosin globular head with an area to bond with during the excitation-contraction coupling. However, actin also contains troponin and tropomyosin, the latter of which must be pulled away from actin in order to reveal the bonding area. Otherwise, crossbridge formation will not occur.

Actin is anchored to the sarcomere by a protein called nebulin

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A. Myosin Introduction To The Muscular System by Human Physiology

About 2/3rds of all skeletal muscle protein is myosin. It is made up of two protein strands twisted together, with one end of each strand folded into a “globular head”.

This globular head is the region which bonds to actin and forms a cross bridge.

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4. Maintain a line of pull as close to your body as possible. Before You Start...(The Fundamentals!) by Principles of Resistance Training 27

Putting this all together, we want that center of gravity, throughout the whole lift, to be as close to our base of support, and thus our line of pull, as possible. Check out this video for a deeper discussion.

Here is a nice example of maintaining a straight line of pull, and keeping it as close to the body as possible. There is virtually no outward swing, but just a straight up and down motion.
http://youtu.be/jpXqVba1mFo

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