And occurs in two parts: Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

For those of you who are training for aesthetic purposes, i.e. you want to get “tone” or something like that, you might notice that these program variables are geared more towards functional performance.

While this is true, anyone who tells you there is much of a difference here is fooling themselves. I mean, aside from a few exceptions, have you ever seen an athlete that didn’t have an aesthetically pleasing physique? I would seriously suggest focusing your goals on functional movements, whether that be running 5 miles or bench pressing a ton, instead of things like “getting ripped”; they are easier to measure, and lead to the same place. Two things that should convince you:

  • Training for performance is essentially about increasing your capacity to produce force in a given time period. Aside from neuromuscular adaptations, this can only be done by increasing the size of your muscles.
  • Ignoring nutrition, the only way to “get ripped” is by manipulating the body’s energy systems to burn fat, or else simply increasing the size of your muscles so they are more visible behind that fat…either way, performance training addresses both.

None-the-less, just make sure to:

Adjust Accordingly…

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In order to get past this initial period and continue improving, it's crucial that you spend some time designing a specific resistance training program, using the seven program design variables. Designing Your Workout by Principles of Resistance Training 38

Most of the questions you have will be answered by reading about the program variables below, but some of you might be wondering:

How long does it have to be?

  • Preferably, your exercise and resistance training habits will continue your whole life. However, specific programs must be tailored to your needs, and periodized accordingly. A program may be 4 years long if you’re training for the olympics, or just a few months if you’re training for spring break. Nah'mean?

What should I include?

  • There are 3 types of resistance training and many more corresponding modes, including weight training, plyometrics, etc. Again, this is determined based on your needs, as well as your preference for different types and the results you get. This is going to be an experiment (which is why you have your whole life!).

How will I know what to include?

  • First and foremost, the internet is a great resource for that kind of information (buyer beware…). But more importantly, you won’t know what to include/exclude unless you have specific, measurable goals with which to guide yourself.

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A more tentative conclusion that can be drawn from the existing research is that drone strikes that result in civilian deaths appear to have little relationship with subsequent insurgent violence. The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns -- Executive Summary by James Igoe Walsh (Ft. Strategic Studies Institute & U.S. Army War College Press)

The stated objectives of the U.S. counterterrorism program, of which drones have played an increasing role, are:

  • To “disrupt, degrade, dismantle, and defeat” al-Qaeda and related groups
  • Eliminating safe havens used by al-Qaeda and its affiliates
  • Weakening the links between al-Qaeda and other violent groups.
  • “building enduring counterterrorism partnerships”
  • countering al-Qaeda’s ideology and propaganda
  • depriving the movement of the sources of financial support and recruits.

In theory, the first 3 objectives could be accomplished safely by drone strikes, but what about the last 3? Intuition would tell us that indirect occupation, killing civilians, and the lack of boots on the ground would severely constrain accomplishment of those respective objectives. Thus, you can see the seemingly contradictory goals in place here. See this study for more context.

However (can’t stress it enough..)

This analysis is still very much inconclusive, so civilian death might actually play a much bigger role in subsequent insurgent violence/activity than suggested here.

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The studies conducted to date would suggest that this objective of the drone campaign is not being met. The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns -- Executive Summary by James Igoe Walsh (Ft. Strategic Studies Institute & U.S. Army War College Press)

I’d just like to point out how important it is that any studies have been conducted to date. I mean, even a few years ago, the general public had no idea what drones were or did, and the government still refuses to even acknowledge the program, in most cases.

The data is still being withheld from researchers in a lot of situations, which must change, but more open and independent inspection of the program is certainly a good step. Consider Donald Rumsfeld’s response when asked about the prospect that innocent civilians were killed during one of the first drone strikes in 2002:

We’ll just have to find out. There’s not much more anyone could add, except that there’s that one version, and there’s the other version.

That’s about as willy-nilly as you can be, with respect to a topic so important to the collective conscious of the U.S., not to mention our international relations.

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This is important, because one objective of the drone strike campaign is to weaken and undermine insurgent organizations that are based in Pakistan and launch attacks against American, Afghan, and international military forces, as well as civilians in Afghanistan. The Effectiveness of Drone Strikes in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Campaigns -- Executive Summary by James Igoe Walsh (Ft. Strategic Studies Institute & U.S. Army War College Press)

For opponents of these clandestine drone strikes, this is great news. However, it still isn’t very convincing as far as empirical evidence goes.

The authors of this paper clearly communicate the difficulties in measuring exactly what “insurgent activity” is, but it is certain that violence is only a fraction of that activity, which makes determining its importance in the overall scheme of things, that much harder. Anyways, here are some other components of “activity” they list (pg. 24):

  • Recruiting new members
  • Controlling territory
  • Raising funds
  • Generating propaganda
  • Forging alliances

ETC…This does not, in any way, undermine the fact that very little correlation was found between drone strikes and subsequent levels of violence, but it’s important to keep in mind the whole picture.

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It states instead that it finds the statute clear. Dissenting Opinion (No. 12-399) by The Supreme Court of the United States (Ft. Justice Ginsburg, Justice Kagan, Justice Scalia & Justice Sotomayor)

Footnote 16:

Justice Thomas concurs in the majority’s interpretation because, although he finds the statute susceptible of more than one plausible reading, he believes that the majority’s reading avoids “significant constitutional problems” concerning whether ICWA exceeds Congress' authority under the Indian Commerce Clause. Ante, at 1, 3-12. No party advanced this argument, and it is inconsistent with this Court’s precedents holding that Congress has “broad general powers to legislate in respect to Indian tribes, powers that we have consistently described as plenary and exclusive,” founded not only on the Indian Commerce Clause but also the Treaty Clause. United States v. Lara, 541 U. S. 193, 200-201 (2004) (internal quotation marks omitted).

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A tribe's interest in its next generation of citizens is adversely affected by the placement of Indian children in homes with no connection to the tribe, whether or not those children were initially in the custody of an Indian parent. Dissenting Opinion (No. 12-399) by The Supreme Court of the United States (Ft. Justice Ginsburg, Justice Kagan, Justice Scalia & Justice Sotomayor)

Footnote 15:

Birth Father is a registered member of the Cherokee Nation, a fact of which Birth Mother was aware at the time of her pregnancy and of which she informed her attorney. See 398 S. C. 625, 632-633, 731 S. E. 2d 550, 554 (2012).

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It stands to reason that the Act would not render the legal status of an Indian father's relationship with his biological child fragile, but would instead grant it a degree of protection commensurate with the more robust state-law standards. Dissenting Opinion (No. 12-399) by The Supreme Court of the United States (Ft. Justice Ginsburg, Justice Kagan, Justice Scalia & Justice Sotomayor)

Footnote 14:

It bears emphasizing that the ICWA standard for termination of parental rights of which Birth Father claims the benefit is more protective than, but not out of step with, the clear and convincing standard generally applied in state courts when termination of parental rights is sought. Birth Father does not claim that he is entitled to custody of Baby Girl unless petitioners can satisfy the demanding standard of §1912(f). See Brief for Respondent Birth Father 40, n. 15. The question of custody would be analyzed independently, as it was by the South Carolina Supreme Court. Of course, it will often be the case that custody is subsequently granted to a child’s fit parent, consistent with the presumption that a natural parent will act in the best interests of his child. See supra, at 19-20.

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§26.33.120(2). Dissenting Opinion (No. 12-399) by The Supreme Court of the United States (Ft. Justice Ginsburg, Justice Kagan, Justice Scalia & Justice Sotomayor)

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But this supposed anomaly is illusory. In fact, the law of at least 15 States did precisely that at the time ICWA was passed. Dissenting Opinion (No. 12-399) by The Supreme Court of the United States (Ft. Justice Ginsburg, Justice Kagan, Justice Scalia & Justice Sotomayor)

Footnote 12:

See Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §8-106(A)(1)© (1974-1983 West Supp.) (consent of both natural parents necessary); Iowa Code §§600.3(2), 600A.2, 600A.8 (1977) (same); Ill. Comp. Stat., ch. 40, §1510 (West 1977) (same); Nev. Rev. Stat. §§127.040, 127.090 (1971) (same); R. I. Gen. Laws §§15-7-5, 15-7-7 (Bobbs-Merrill 1970) (same); Conn. Gen. Stat. §§45-61d, 45-61i(b)(2) (1979) (natural father’s consent required if paternity acknowledged or judicially established); Fla. Stat. §63.062 (1979) (same); Ore. Rev. Stat. §§109.092, 109.312 (1975) (same); S. D. Codified Laws §§25-6-1.1, 25-6-4 (Allen Smith 1976) (natural father’s consent required if mother identifies him or if paternity is judicially established); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§199.500, 199.607 (Bobbs-Merrill Supp. 1980) (same); Ala. Code §26-10-3 (Michie 1977) (natural father’s consent required when paternity judicially established); Minn. Stat. §§259.24(a), 259.26(3)(a), (e), (f), 259.261 (1978) (natural father’s consent required when identified on birth certificate, paternity judicially established, or paternity asserted by affidavit); N. H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §170-B:5(I)(d) (1977) (natural father’s consent required if he files notice of intent to claim paternity within set time from notice of prospective adoption); Wash. Rev. Code §§26.32.040(5), 26.32.085 (1976) (natural father’s consent required if paternity acknowledged, judicially established, or he files notice of intent to claim paternity within set time from notice of prospective adoption); W. Va. Code Ann. §48-4-1 (Michie Supp. 1979) (natural father’s consent required if father admits paternity by any means). See also Del. Code Ann., Tit. 13, §908(2) (Michie Supp. 1980) (natural father’s consent required unless court finds that dispensing with consent requirement is in best interests of the child); Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§1-22-108, 1-22-109 (Michie 1988) (same).

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